Geranium Farm Home     Who's Who on the Farm     The Almost Daily eMo     Subscriptions     Coming Events     Links
Hodgepodge     More or Less Church     Ways of the World     Father Matthew     A Few Good Writers     Bookstore
Light a Prayer Candle     Message Board     Donations     Gifts For Life     Pennies From Heaven     Live Chat

Ways of the World

Carol Stone, business economist & active Episcopalian, brings you "Ways of the World". Exploring business & consumers & stewardship, we'll discuss everyday issues: kids & finances, gas prices, & some larger issues: what if foreigners start dumping our debt? And so on. We can provide answers & seek out sources for others. We'll talk about current events & perhaps get different perspectives from what the media says. Write to Carol. Let her know what's important to you:

Saturday, November 15, 2014

Why People Might Pull Back from the Job Market

Back in early summer we expressed concern that fewer people are participating in the labor market – fewer people are working or actively hunting for work, relative to the size of the population – than has been the case for more than 35 years.  Five years after the presumed end of a massive recession, this fact surprised us and we promised to look more into what might be going on.  Shouldn't more people be more anxious to work or to find work?  Instead, the so-called labor force participation rate stands at just 62.8% of the population as of October, down from 65.7% in July 2009, the last month of the official recession period.

To recap our June comments a bit, we look at three different age groups, older people, teens and middle-agers, each of whom has a distinct relationship to the labor market that reduces its participation.  First and perhaps most straightforward, there are more and more older people, so retirement is a bigger factor than it has been historically.  Indeed, Federal Reserve economists have used fairly simple arithmetic with Labor Department data to estimate that about 1.25% of the decline in the participation rate is due to the aging population.[1]  We could explore retirement more, of course, but for our current discussion, this much about that group will cover it.  Second, teen-agers seem to be less interested in getting a job than they were "when we were their age".  Our subsequent research has turned up three reasons for this, which we will discuss momentarily.  Finally, an increased share of middle-age workers has been pulling back from the workforce.  Since this group is obviously the most important part of the working population, we want to know more.

Teens:  School and Competition from Immigrants
For teenagers and young adults, increased schooling looks to be the main force.  Aaronson and her Federal Reserve colleagues, whose study we just referenced about retirees, discuss teens as well, examining the monthly employment data and the Labor Department's "American Time Use Survey". They show that more young people are enrolled in school and for those enrolled, school and extracurricular activities take more time every day.  You parents would be aware of this, and the numbers show it to be so.  They estimate that school enrollment – including increased attendance in summer school – and school time factors account for about three-quarters of the decline in teen-age participation in recent years.[2]

There are two likely and similar reasons for the remaining fall-off in teen-age work interest.  First, teens face heightened competition from adults without college educations.  Due to changing technology, those adults face an increasingly complicated job market.  It turns out that the kinds of work young people often do, such as food preparation, retail sales and personal care, are now done by older workers more frequently than before.  We'll detail this issue when we talk below about middle-agers.  Second, teens also face increasing competition from immigrant workers.  Extensive statistical analysis shows that teens have been more susceptible than adults to competition from the growing numbers of immigrants who have no more than a high school education.  These immigrants would have about the same amount of work experience in the U.S. as do native-born teenagers.[3]

So altogether, teens are spending more time in school, and they are meeting greater competition for the kinds of jobs they often do; these factors are discouraging more of them from even trying to find jobs.

Middle-Agers: Job Polarization a Growing Obstacle
The group that concerns us most are the middle-agers, whom labor market analysts refer to as "prime-working-age" from 25 to 54.   While 81% of this huge group do work or actively seek work, that share has come down from 83% just before the recession.  Our research "googling" has turned up papers from other business economists, Federal Reserve economists and even the Fed's Chair, which all indicate that we are hardly the only people puzzled over this pull-back from work.  Even if 2 percentage points doesn't look very dramatic, the growth of the economy as a whole and especially the well-being of those very people who have pulled away can be hurt.  What's been going on with those middle-agers?  Can we tell something about why?

San Francisco Federal Reserve economists Mary Daly and Elliot Marks argue that the depth and severity of the recession have discouraged people but now that total employment is finally back to pre-recession numbers and looking more vigorous, those people might be expected to re-enter the labor force and seek jobs anew.[4]  Indeed, the September and October employment reports did look more favorable, extending a trend of quite decent job growth through seven months and including upward revisions to the last three months' results.  Daly and Marks seem to argue that this will re-attract some "non-participants".  They further argue that, as such a trend might feed on itself, work will become far more enticing than it has been over the last six or seven years.  Separately, the latest several weeks' data on new claims for unemployment insurance show that layoffs are holding at eight-year lows, another favorable sign.

Other writers are not so sanguine.  A whole group of studies has emerged describing a spreading phenomenon known as "job polarization".  This development could well discourage a sizable group of people from even trying to find work.  You might be able to guess what it means just from what you already see every day in the working world.  At one end are high-level jobs in technology and finance and business management.  At the other end are service jobs, such as those in restaurants and hospitals.  The middle range of factory workers and office administrative positions is shrinking.  Robots and other sophisticated machines do increasing amounts of manufacturing assembly work, while the very computers you and I use every day replace more and more secretaries, bookkeepers and the like.  So the mix of jobs – and incomes – are more and more polarized: high-end jobs and low-end jobs predominate.  This force plays into the income inequality situation, as it seems to mean that energetic people who may not have advanced educations might not be able to move up in the world as they have been in recent decades.  A whole "special report" in a recent issue of The Economist puts this in fairly stark terms and discusses its global reach, as it is hardly confined just to the US and Europe.[5]

There's no concrete proof that polarization is directly connected to people's withdrawal from the labor force, but we can make one strong inference.  The monthly employment survey asks people who are "not in the labor force" if they would actually like to have a job or if they don't want to work.  For the middle-aged population, the share who say they don't even want a job has risen from 14% of that population in the late 1990s to 17% more recently.  The share of that age group who would work if they thought there was a good chance of getting a job has also risen, albeit marginally.  Since this age group is much less subject to retirement than older workers and is seen to face less impact than teens from the influx of foreign workers, we can only believe that discouragement over the increasing lack of opportunity is a major factor holding them back.

What Can We Do? Post-High School Training
So what can be done about "job polarization" and about lower teen participation in the workforce?  Are we stuck in a new economic quagmire?  A full-blown answer would take much more space than we have here, but we can offer a couple of ideas.

The Labor Department makes 10-year projections of the growth in various occupations and categorizes them by the amount of education needed for entry.[6]  The middle-range ones being hit by polarization are typically filled by people with a high-school diploma.  Sure enough, projections for those show several office functions and various kinds of factory assembly work with absolute declines over coming years.  Even with other jobs expanding, such as personal care assistants, computer-controlled machine operators and customer service representatives, total jobs for high school grads are seen as the slowest growing segment.

By contrast, if people get just a bit more education, such as a vocational school or community college, their prospects pick up sharply.  That is, if they get training in some technical skill or perhaps additional math background, more occupations with greater prospective growth will be open to them and will enable them to move ahead rather than languish.  And, in addition, make more money over their working lives.

Teach Soft Skills
Another word we've seen in discussions of these issues is "employability".  Specific job qualifications are obviously important.  But recently, prospective employers report that they often meet candidates who don't have so-called "soft skills".[7]  While the amount of education someone has may address the impact of job polarization, it can be the soft-skill, employability issue that covers everyone and all jobs, technical, advanced professional or low-end, this last sort the kind that teenagers and immigrant laborers often compete for.  Soft skills: do you dress properly, are you on time, do you listen carefully to instructions and in turn do you ask relevant questions to clarify and enhance your understanding, and perhaps most seriously, can you pass a drug test.  Indeed, in a recent listing of the 10 most important skills employers are known to desire in order to hire for some presumed popular jobs, the first four are the soft ones.[8]  Would you be a responsible and attentive worker, whatever the job itself is about.  These skills can be taught at home, in high school and also in many workforce development programs run by local governments and nonprofit organizations.

So training focused for the workaday world is one big answer to our potential job and labor market predicament.  There are also social factors, such as single-parent households, that contribute to trends in labor force participation.  And we haven't mentioned lackluster wage gains.  So there is farther to go on these issues.  For the present, we do have the one approach of training, which can help, and help a lot.

[1] Stephanie Aaronson, "Labor Force Participation: Recent Developments and Future Prospects".  Paper prepared for the Fall 2014 Brookings Panel on Economic Activity.  September 2014. Page 23.

[2] Op. cit., page 26.

[3] Christopher L. Smith.  "The Impact of Low-Skilled Immigration on the Youth Labor Market,"  Journal of Labor Economics.  Vol. 30, No. 1, January 2012.  Pp 55-89.

[4] Mary C. Daly and Elliot M. Marks.  "The Labor Market in the Aftermath of the Great Recession," Business Economics.  Vol. 49, No. 3, July 2014.  Pp. 149-155.

[5] Ryan Avent.  "The Third Great Wave," The Economist.  October 4, 2014.  Special Report, pp. 3-18.

[6] U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.  "Employment Projections: Occupational employment, job openings and worker characteristics." December 2013.  The table includes more than 800 occupational categories, which we sorted by educational requirements.

[7] Dennis Lockhart.  "Strategic Workforce Development: Training for Employability."  Keynote Remarks for Community Development Conference: Transforming U.S. Workforce Development Policies for the 21st Century.  Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey, October 16, 2014.

Lockhart is President and Chief Executive of the Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta, a co-sponsor of the conference.  He mentions three soft-skills training programs, Year-Up, STRIVE, and 12 for Life.

[8] Meghan Casserly.  "The 10 Skills That Will Get You Hired in 2013,"  Forbes website, December 10, 2012.

Also see Rachel Burstein.  "Here Are the Crucial Job Skills Employers Are Really Looking For." website, August 29, 2014.


Monday, September 15, 2014

Personal Finances, the Great Recession and the Sluggish Recovery

We all keep wishing the economy would "feel better", don't we? that there could be a sense of greater confidence in jobs, in opportunities, in everyone's financial situations.  We wonder why the recovery from the recent Great Recession could be taking so very long.

Our last look at the economy, posted in late June, focused on the job market, and we promised then to talk again about possible reasons the current malaise has resulted in people dropping out of the labor force.   Very soon, the Census Bureau and the Labor Department will publish some detailed data for 2013 that hopefully will help us tackle that question.

Meantime, there is one area we can speak to, the condition of personal finances, a topic for which we already have a quantity of recent information.  One of the main causes of the Great Recession was that people borrowed lots and lots of money.  Much of the public commentary about that recession asserts that financial speculation and bankers brought on the crisis.  Clearly they were important, but it's also true that people took on more and more debt.  Bankers and traders did speculative things with that debt, but it all did start with the consumers who borrowed the money.  A key, then, to the resumption of stronger growth is likely related to the progress people are making in correcting this over-reaching.

Mortgages & Homeowners' Negative Equity
Mortgage debt expanded sharply from the middle of 2001 through 2006, over 13% a year.  The payments on that debt, so-called "debt service", surged from 5.9% of people's disposable income in 2004 to 7.2% at the end of 2007.  People who refinanced mortgages borrowed more than their existing liability during those years, decreasing the equity they had in their homes.  Overall, this home equity withdrawal amounted to almost $500 billion a year from 2003 to 2006.[1]

As people were stretching their personal financial conditions, interest rates began to rise in 2004 and people with adjustable rate mortgages or initially low "teaser" rates saw their mortgage payments go up sharply.  By late 2006, unusual numbers of borrowers started having trouble keeping current on their payments on those and regular mortgages as well.  The greater delinquencies hurt the lenders and the owners of bonds backed by the mortgages.  The climb in home sales peaked in 2005, and they began to decline.  Home prices started to fall in 2006; although those have finally begun to climb again, they remain well below their 2005/06 highs.  The result, even now, is that 17% of homeowners have a mortgage that is larger than the value of their home.[2]  Called "negative equity", that's actually an improvement from over 25% in early 2013 and almost 31% in mid-2012, but remains a heavy weight on people's approach to spending and their outlook on the economy in general.

Even now, after some recovery, housing and mortgage activity remain in the doldrums.  New home construction this year is running no more than half the pace of 2005, and sales of existing homes are still down some 30% from that year's pace.  The latest weekly report from the Mortgage Bankers Association shows a new recovery low last week in the volume of mortgage applications.  People are still staying back from mortgage debt.

Credit Card Debt Got Big Too
Another consumer debt issue is credit cards.  From the spring of 2006 through early 2008, credit card balances accelerated; from very modest growth of about 2% year-over-year in early 2006, they were expanding at a 10% rate by late 2007.

Average credit card balances reached what are, to us, astounding levels:  in 2007, households in the middle 20% income bracket owed $6,300 and those in the next rung down, $4,900.  Balances were higher, of course, in higher brackets, so the average over the entire income span was $8,200.[3]  If these were charged interest at a common credit card rate of 1-1/2% a month, the interest add-on each month would have been $120!  Delinquency rates on credit cards in those years hovered around 9% and rose rapidly during the recession; they reached 13.74% by the spring of 2010.[4]

Credit card usage did slow.  By last year, the middle income bracket's average had fallen to just $4,900 and the overall average to $5,700, this latter a reduction of 35% from its peak.  People are paying larger portions of their bills each month too; from 19% of their balance each month in 2006, people in recent months have been paying almost 25%.[5]  The lower balances have obviously accompanied more sluggish spending growth.  In the 2004-2007 period of big increases in credit card balances, spending was expanding at rates of 6 and 7% a year.  It declined outright in 2009 and has had a modest, uneven pattern since then.  In 2013, people increased their outlays on categories of items that might be charged to a card by just 3% and this year's second quarter was up 3.6% from a year earlier, half the pace during the "spree".[6]

There are numerous reasons for the currently mediocre performance of the U.S. economy, and one of them is surely this restraint on credit use.  Some of this might be banks turning down applications, but as we note with the mortgage information, people are not even applying in much volume in the first place.  In view of the excess of the 2004-2007 period, this caution is quite appropriate.   Importantly, it is helping to improve credit quality; credit card delinquencies in the second quarter were back down to 2.25%, and those on mortgages are down from a peak of 8.9% in early 2010 to 3.4% in the latest period.

The better delinquency situation is laying the groundwork for renewed spending growth on a much sounder basis.  Recent retail sales reports suggest this might be happening.  Also, we do note that people are buying cars these days and obviously borrowing to do that.  After a long hiatus, many people's cars and SUVs have simply grown old and need replacing, so it is not surprising to see this.  It is the only category of ordinary consumer borrowing with much vigor.

People May Still Not Be Saving Enough.  Are You?
At the same time, there are two issues still to grapple with: student loans and saving.  Student loans are a whole topic on their own and we will return to talk about them and the "worth" of incurring big, long-term debt to pay for college.  Saving has improved since the Crash and recession, but continues as a matter of concern.

The saving rate, that is, the amount of personal income not spent, got as low as 2% during the debt-spree years, reached a band of 6-7% in 2011 and 2012 and recently was 5.3% in the second quarter.[7]  So it's clearly up off the lows, but not "high".  Also what isn't "high" is the number of people who actually have a cautionary stash of emergency cash under their mattress (or in a safe bank account somewhere) .  A special Federal Reserve survey of people's economic well-being taken during 2013 asked them about this:  "Have you set aside emergency or rainy day funds that would cover your expenses for 3 months?"  Only 39% of participants said yes.   Further, younger people have a lower positive response: only 33% of households headed by 18-44 year-old people said yes.  There is no history of this for comparison, so we don't know how low that number would have been during the spending-spree era.[8]

So we are not surprised that the economy remains relatively sluggish; we believe some of this reflects the extension of a rebuilding effort for people's own financial standing.  There are lots of other issues, but that is certainly one that had not impacted previous business cycles so deeply or pervasively.  We've illustrated some progress, though, and look forward to further improvement.  Meantime, stick a little cash under your mattress every paycheck until you think you can cover three months' worth of expenses!

A new book, published just in May, encouraged us to give these ideas some extra emphasis.  House of Debt, by Atif Mian and Amir Sufi, explores mortgage borrowing by zip code around the country, highlighting the role of the debt itself in generating the severe recessionary conditions throughout the economy, not just in the housing sector.  The book's subtitle is "How They (and You) Caused the Great Recession, and How We Can Prevent It from Happening Again."  Hmmm. 

We also consulted Stephan Whitaker's "The Evolution of Household Leverage during the Recovery", an Economic Commentary of the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, dated September 2, 2014.  Whitaker has calculated household debt/income ratios for census tracts around the country.

Footnotes cover specific data sources.  Most of our actual data references come from these sources as presented in the databases of Haver Analytics.

[1] Federal Reserve Board, Financial Accounts of the U.S.  Equity withdrawal amounts are taken from calculations made by Haver using those Federal Reserve data.

[2] Zillow, Inc. "U.S. Negative Equity Falls to 17 Percent", Press Release, August 26, 2014.

[3] Federal Reserve Board.  2013 Survey of Consumer Finances.  Issued September 4, 2014.

[4] Federal Reserve Bank of New York.  Household Debt and Credit Report.  2nd Quarter 2014, August 14, 2014.

[5] Payment rates on credit cards from the Standard & Poor's Ratings Services' U.S. Credit Card Quality Index (CCQI).

[6] Data on consumer spending from the Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA), in the "national income accounts", that is, the same dataset as GDP and its other components.  We calculated a "credit card spending subtotal" by taking total consumer spending and subtracting off housing services, education, health care, vehicle purchases and other broad spending categories that aren't likely to be paid for by charging to a credit card.

[7] The saving rate is also taken from the BEA's national income accounts.

[8] Federal Reserve Board.  Report on the Economic Well-Being of U.S. Households in 2013.  "Savings Behavior", pp. 17-18.  July 2014.

Labels: , ,

Sunday, August 17, 2014

A Remembrance of Robin Williams

We have an article in process on consumer finances and their role in the broader economy.  Even as we are working on that, we recognize that these days are full of heavy-weight events in the world.  In the last few weeks, we have written of praying for peace (July 18) and we have offered internet links to aid for the child immigrants in Texas (July 11).  Now, we also need to pause and remember a prominent man who has passed, Robin Williams.

There is much we could say about Williams.  We could choose the serious side of his passing, including his illnesses and the manner of his death.  But in this moment, we choose to be light-hearted and remember the fun he brought us.  For Episcopalians, perhaps the easiest and most sentimental expression of this is a recitation of the gift he gave to us in particular, "The Top 10 Reasons for Being Episcopalian", which he presented during an HBO special in 2002.  These have been making the rounds this past week and you may have seen them already.  There's even a tee shirt, which you can find here:

The Top 10 Reasons for Being Episcopalian:
10. No snake handling.
9. You can believe in dinosaurs.
8. Male and female God created them; male and female we ordain them.
7. You don't have to check your brains at the door.
6. Pew aerobics.
5. Church year is color-coded.
4. Free wine on Sunday.
3. All of the pageantry - none of the guilt.
2. You don't have to know how to swim to get baptized.

And the Number One reason to be an Episcopalian:
1. No matter what you believe, there's bound to be at least one other Episcopalian who agrees with you.

May Williams help us to laugh at ourselves, which we need to do often and especially right now! 

Labels: ,

Tuesday, July 22, 2014

"The Courage to Grow Old"

Last year in this country, there were 19.5 million people over age 75.  This group made up 6.2% of the total population.  By 2026, just 12 years from now, Census Bureau projections indicate there will be about 10 million more of these elderly residents and they will be more than 8% of the population, growing another 10 million through the subsequent nine years to almost 11%.

So Barbara Crafton has written a book on growing old.  We know we don't need to justify any particular choice of topic for her writings, and her own reason for writing on this seems to be that she herself feels she is beginning "to grow old", as is evident in the Preface and Chapter 1 of the book.  Still, and perhaps too obvious to deserve mention, this is a topic of broad general interest, and her comments on several issues and her impressions of this time in our lives are significant for many people and their publication significantly timed, as illustrated by our data above.

Some of the topics are practical: among others, how do you convince your father that he shouldn't drive a car anymore?  How do you handle really elderly parents who want to live at home or in your home?  How do you conduct yourself on a date?[!]  Also, quite logically but with great feeling, how do you imagine approaching death and dying yourself?

So we have taken a step right here in what Barbara wants us to do.  We're talking about this.  We've already taken a courageous step.  See what she says on page 8:

In order to help those who love me deal with my death, I must come to terms with it myself.  It will help to think about death in advance.  Trust me [she says], this gets easier to do with practice – those things of which we refuse to think don't disappear meekly in response to our refusal:  they go underground.  There they grow in apparent size and virulence, becoming larger and more unthinkable than they really are.  What will happen to me in my death is that I will join the billions of human beings who have died; everyone who has ever lived has managed to do this.

We have already had experiences in our lives like this: major losses, traumatic events.  We realize that in order to function more fully as time passes, the best way to handle those experiences is to face them head on.  Our own death is no different, apparently.

One chapter talks about pain, and Barbara is quick to distinguish between acute pain and chronic pain.  Acute pain sends a signal:  oops, your finger is too close to the candle flame.  Ouch!  Then you take action to stop it.  Chronic pain is different.  You have to learn to live with chronic pain and counteract its source or compensate for it.  For instance, maybe your knees won't let you genuflect in church?  Then bow instead [that's what we ourselves have to do!].  She says these strategies take courage too; from page 35:

I think chronic pain teaches courage.  Real courage, I mean, not bravado – it teaches the kind of courage that looks unwaveringly at the way things really are, rather than the strutting, noisy kind that asserts power it doesn't possess and control over events that human beings don't really run.  No, the courage chronic pain can teach us is the slow kind, the patient kind – maybe "maturity" is a better term for it than "courage."

One more notion, an impressionist metaphor: "The Two Baskets".  We are in a basket that is nested in a bigger basket.  Page 80:

Baskets are woven, of course: strips of grass or straw or wood thread intricately over and under one another again and again . . . . But there is space between the strips, however tightly they might be woven.  You could peer out one of those spaces, if you wanted to. . . . Yup, there's something out there all right.  But you can't see it very clearly through that tiny opening.  Besides, who cares?  This basket is beautiful.  It contains everything you need.

One day, though, the smaller basket begins to fall apart . . . .

So you get the idea of where that image is going.  Barbara helps us understand that we have been inside the bigger basket all along.

In addition to Barbara's two baskets, we realize that we've actually seen a third basket.  A friend who lately became a grandmother showed us a picture of her grandson smiling at us – from the womb.  The wonders of ultrasound let us see inside and there was little Luke, inside the basket inside the basket inside the basket . . . .

Barbara Crafton's book The Courage to Grow Old is published by Morehouse, an imprint of Church Publishing, Incorporated.  It is available from Amazon and Barnes & Noble, in both paperback and Kindle or Nook editions.


Friday, July 18, 2014

Praying for Peace: It's All We Can Do

The Rev. F. M. Buddy Stallings, Rector of St. Bart's on Park Avenue in Manhattan, is an Associate of the Geranium Farm; his pieces run on the Farm's website page "A Few Good Writers".  This morning, what he emailed sounds exactly like what we feel about the two simultaneous awful-nesses that are impacting the world right now, the shooting down of the plane in eastern Ukraine and the fighting in Gaza.

We mourn the loss of some AIDS scientists who were traveling on the plane, as well as a member of the Dutch Senate, a nun returning to a teaching job in Sydney after a study sabbatical in Europe, and the numerous others traveling to Asia.  We learned that Ukraine was, until yesterday, on a major flying route from Europe to Asia; planes are apparently now being rerouted over Turkey.  How will the conflict over that region be reconciled?

We also wish over and over that the terrorism and the Arab/Israeli distresses could be eased.  We were in the World Trade Center on 9/11, so this is a very personal notion.

Those thoughts prompt us to respond here on Ways of the World, and we take the liberty of copying Buddy's comments so our own readers may see them.  
Nothing I had planned to write today seems weighty enough in light of the events of yesterday: the shooting down of the Malaysian airliner and Israel's ground operation into Gaza. . . .
And yet, each of us is required to have some sort of public reaction -- not a position piece for sure, but some orientation or perhaps world-view through which we process such events. Over the years I have in some ways hidden from many of the hard conversations about conflict and turmoil in the world by claiming that my positions are theological not political: peace over war, non-violence over violence, negotiation over action. Though lofty and pious, they also are not, as I have been told with some regularity, particularly practical or easily reduced to logistics about how we actually are to live together on an ever- shrinking globe. I almost envy the bellicose, who at every turn say in a million ways "there is going to be hell to pay for this; let's go blow somebody up," and the equally certain, who seem to know in every case the absolute moral decision to make.
I pray for peace; and though that seems pretty weak and small, it is all I have. Though God may clearly expect more, I am not sure what it is and at this point can only wait until I have further light.

Labels: ,

Friday, July 11, 2014

Links for Helping with the Immigration Crisis in South Texas

Not your usual Ways of the World essay.

We are as many of you are, too, probably very concerned about the throngs of Central American children coming across the Texas border.  Yesterday, July 10, the Presiding Bishop of the Episcopal Church, Katharine Jefferts Schori, called our attention to the work on this crisis issue by various bodies of the Church.  Her specific emphasis was on advocacy and policy.  She also certainly feels compassion for the kids themselves, and she urges us to pray and give as well.

As we read her published statement in a daily email from Episcopal News Service, we were moved to check on the website of Episcopal Relief & Development for possible news of actual relief efforts.  As many of you know, the Geranium Farm are long-time supporters of ER-D's work.  Sure enough, they are helping get resources to the relief center being run in McAllen, Texas, right on the border across the Rio Grande from Reynosa, Mexico, and between Brownsville and Laredo.  St. John's Episcopal Church is pitching in at the center, which is located at Sacred Heart Catholic Church and being managed by Catholic Charities.  At least one of the local Baptist churches is also participating and possibly other churches.

Here is a link to Episcopal Relief & Development, where you can make a monetary donation to that work:

If you want to send supplies directly to the center, here is information from Sacred Heart Church: .  This includes the address of the drop-off center and an itemized list of what they need; it's pretty basic daily-living stuff for adults and little kids.

Here is a link to the Diocese of West Texas, which has posted pictures of the work and in-kind donations that are being provided.

Finally, today's New York Times ran a strongly worded op-ed by an unlikely group of immigration reform advocates: Sheldon Adelson, CEO of the Las Vegas Sands Corporation, Warren Buffet, CEO of Berkshire Hathaway, and Bill Gates, Chair of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and a founder of Microsoft.  These three, who begin with the disclaimer that they don't have common political perspectives, strongly urge the Congress to get its act together on immigration reform legislation.  This presently appears unlikely to happen before the November election as everyone wants to run away from the hot-button issue before constituents vote.  But those little kids down there in Texas and the adults who sent them need some clarity.  So too, as Adelson, Buffett and Gates argue, do the graduate students from abroad working hard at our universities, and others anxious to come here legally or to regularize their current status as residents of our country.  Contact your Representatives.  While the Church's advocacy work helps, constituent contact will count too.

Please respond somehow.

Labels: , ,

Tuesday, July 08, 2014

The First Generation of Americans

Each year at the anniversary of American Independence, Ways of the World visits that historical era with an eye to the key role of ordinary people.  The American Revolution was more than battles and big documents; it marked dramatic changes in the structure of society, in people’s relationships and in their day-to-day interactions with one another.

We sought this year to see how this reordering played out as the new country and its culture developed.  Recognizing that we had not read a classic statement of this, Tocqueville’s Democracy in America, we thought that might be the way to go.  Our seeking brought us instead to a prelude of the years right before Tocqueville’s trip, which began in 1831.  So we focus on Inheriting the Revolution: the First Generation of Americans by Joyce Appleby.  She is professor emerita at UCLA and a former president of the American Historical Association.  The book is based largely on her study of people born from 1776 to 1800, sourced from autobiographies, contemporary press reports and other primary sources.

Originality and newness and flexibility are the main themes.  There had been a big war and the older people were conditioned by the necessary defenses they had had to put together.  The new, younger generation faced no such constraints; they were looking forward.  Their new orientation became manifest in some surprisingly basic aspects of living, as Appleby explains.

In these annual July-4th exercises, we never cease to be amazed at the historic reach of the American Revolution.  Here follow six significant kinds of changes that emerged early after it.  They concern a fundamental shift of power, influence and benefits from a limited predetermined elite to a vast populace exercising initiative.  At the same time, we will have to conclude with some comments about some people who were largely left out of all this.

1.  Politics and the popular press
By the 1790s, many more people were learning to read, and newspapers were expanding rapidly.  As marks affairs today, inquisitive reporters and commentators got into the workings of government and of leaders.  The process of governing was now out in the open, no longer conducted in closed rooms, hidden from the population at large; information was now available to almost everyone.  Appleby highlights the election of Jefferson in 1800 as a demarcation of the social ramifications of what was happening.  Social and political power were now uncoupled.  "[T]he colonial belief that authority should be exercised through the uncontested leadership of a recognized cadre of families” was "drowned in a tidal wave". [Appleby, page 6]

2.  Enterprise and expansion
The Industrial Revolution along with the end of the American Revolutionary War meant people could focus on going new places and making new things.  They were no longer preoccupied with military issues and could explore the vastness of the North American continent.  Agriculture and the family farm remained the primary way to make a living, but commercial interests developed to a substantial extent.  Steam engines and machine tools led to the growth of industry; as the variety of goods available increased, retailing expanded and all this needed financing, so banking spread as well.  Many new kinds of jobs opened up.  Extending the theme of spreading leadership, business ventures could be undertaken by anyone, not just members of certain favored families or those with government connections.

3.  Careers
Indeed, individuals could now make many basic choices about the course of their own lives.  “Where once sons had achieved manhood by emulating their fathers, more and more they were esteemed by carrying a torch into uncharted territory.” [page 21]  Notably, the very word “career” took on a new definition.  The Oxford English Dictionary shows that in 1580, it meant “a race course”.  But by 1802, it had come to describe “a person’s progress through life”.  [Cited by Appleby, page 270]

4.  Societal distinctions
“Mobility” now meant several things: movement away from the family home, geographic mobility even to another region, changing one’s profession, participating in and gaining influence in governing.  The product of these processes came to be known as the “middle class”, encompassing people with origins in both ends of the economic spectrum and generating a new emphasis on peer groups.  “Status”, “merit” and “virtue” were still important, but they took on whole new contexts.

5.  Intimate relationships
“The collapse of venerable hierarchies and the scattering of families” [page 22] meant people no longer had a pre-existing emotional support system; they had to be conscious of their emotional needs and seek out relatives and friends with some deliberateness.  In another sphere of intimacy, religious revivals imparted to church and worship an emotional character not generally experienced before in more formal worship settings.

6.  Voluntary associations
Society, of course, continued to be plagued with various problems.  Individuals who cared about specific issues of the day began to form volunteer groups to address them.  Appleby emphasizes temperance and urban charity among more secular issues, while the evangelical revivalist movements sent people on mission work.  These missions were sometimes foreign, perhaps to India, and some more local, such as to the Cherokees and the Chickasaws.  Anti-slavery organizations were formed.

So the young country grew and prospered with broad-based participation in leadership roles unknown in history before.

“Participation” was, of course, still not universal:  women and blacks were still restrained.  Women's roles evolved somewhat, though.  Many became literate, with some making writing careers.  Others became active in church-work or other voluntary groups; they became aware that they wanted and should have choices, not necessarily tied automatically to the men in their lives. 

Appleby is careful in many places to specify that the main beneficiaries of the constructive societal changes were "white men".  Blacks (many from the West Indies as well as Africa) were largely emancipated in the North, could own property and even vote in some locales.  But the Southern culture was different, remaining staunchly pro-slavery and retaining other hierarchical characteristics.  Part of this is tied to dependence on labor-intensive cotton-growing as European demand for the fabric expanded.  Without more study, we don't want to go on about this at length, but Appleby makes clear that the seeds of conflict over these racial differences were sown very early in our history as a nation.

We want to leave you with two thoughts in this July 4th Season of 2014.  First, much of the news of our day highlights failures and misgivings people feel about our government and society.  But we urge you to stop and put this in perspective.  The US has fostered a flexible, open lifestyle focused on mobility.  It's distinctive in millennia of history, that we have come, 238 years after Independence, to want to assure opportunities for everyone, whatever their background.  People who were prospering in 1800 were already starting to figure out how they could spread this prosperity.

Secondly, this spirit of widespread initiative and prosperity is readily evident to other people all around the world.  Some of them seem to hate us for it and plot our destruction.  But many others want to come and join in it.  We see the massive border problems of this moment and we struggle mightily over how to handle the hordes of illegal immigrants.  Surely this whole situation is being badly mishandled and the President perhaps did not anticipate the volume of people who would respond to his unilateral move in 2012 to let young people stay who arrived in the U.S. as dependent children.

But look at the statement those young people and their families are making.  What you and I have as lives here in the United States, flawed though our situations may seem to us, looks so great compared to what those families have now that they are willing to risk everything to come and be a part of it or send their children in the hope they can have a better future.

* * * * *
Joyce Appleby.  Inheriting the Revolution: the First Generation of Americans.  Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.  2000.

Labels: ,

Copyright © 2003-Present Geranium Farm - All rights reserved.
Reproduction of any materials on this web site for any purpose
other than personal use without written consent is prohibited.